Dr. rer. nat. Wolfgang H. Schwarz (former academic director)

 

Wolfgang received his Ph.D. in molecular genetics in 1979 and has over 30 years of experience in clostridia, especially in the field of cellulases and hemicellulases. He is leading and conducting industry related research and has advised a number of multinationals on industrial biotechnology processes. Among others he was speaker of the expert group “Bioenergy” of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan of the European Commission and has been member of the editorial board of “Microbiology” (SGM) and “Applied Environmental Microbiology” (ASM).

 

curriculum vitae

2007-2016 Technical University Munich, Institute for Microbiology (Prof. Liebl), Research Group for Microbial Biotechnology, Working Group Leader
1999-2007 Technical University Munich, Institute for Microbiology (Prof. Staudenbauer), Research Group for Microbial Biotechnology, Working Group Leader, Research fields: application of proteomic methods for the determination of exo-protein expression in clostridia (cellulosome of C. thermocellum), genetics of polysaccharide hydrolysing exo-enzymes in clostridia, isolation of new solvent producing bacteria from soil, history of acetone-butanol fermentation in the former Soviet-Union
1982-1999 Technical University Munich, Institute for Microbiology (Prof. Staudenbauer), Research assistant and Assistant Professor, Research fields: Genetics of thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria; cloning and expression of polysaccharide-hydrolysing exo-enzymes; biochemical characterization of glycosyl hydrolases; protein-engineering
1980-1982 Kyoto-University, Japan Virus-Research-Institute, Working group of Prof. Yura, Scientist, Fellow of the Alexander-von-Humboldt-Stiftung and the Japan Society for Promotion of Science research on „Genetics of DNA-replication in Escherichia coli“
1978-1980 University Kyoto, Japan, Virus-Research-Institute, Working group of Prof. Yura and Prof. Nagata, Scientist, Fellow of DAAD (German student exchange organisation) and Monbusho (Ministry for Cultural Affairs, Japan), research on: „Genetics of a new type of DNA-replication mutants of Escherichia coli“
1975-1979 Ludwigs-Maximilians-University Munich, Institute for Genetics (Prof. Schmieger), Doctoral thesis on "Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium with temperature sensitive DNA metabolism"
1975 Technical University of Munich, Institute for Genetics (Prof. Schmieger), Diploma thesis on “Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium”

 

Published articles:

112. Baudrexl, M., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov V.V., Liebl, W. (2019) Biochemical characterisation of four rhamnosidases from thermophilic bacteria of the genera Thermotoga, Caldicellulosiruptor and Thermoclostridium. Scientific Reports 9:15924. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52251-0 

111. Rykov, S.V., Kornberger, P., Herlet, J., Tsurin, N.V., Zorov, I.N., Zverlov V.V., Liebl, W., Schwarz, W.H., Yarotsky S.V., Berezina O.V. (2019) Novel endo-(1,4)-ß-glucanase Bgh12A and xyloglucanase Xgh12B from Aspergillus cervinus belong to GH12 subgroup I and II, respectively. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 103:7553-7566. doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-10006-x 

110. Heinze, S., Zimmermann, K., Ludwig, C., Heinzlmeir, S., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V.V., Liebl, W., Kornberger, P. (2018) Evaluation of promoter sequences for the secretory production of a Clostridium thermocellum cellulase in Paenibacillus polymyxa. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 102:10147-10159. doi.org/10.1007/s00253-018-9369-7 

109. Herlet, J., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W., Kornberger, P. (2018) Addition of ß-galactosidase boosts the xyloglucan degradation capability of endoglucanase Cel9D from Clostridium thermocellum. Biotechnology for Biofuels 11:238. doi.org/10.1186/s13068-018-1242-5 

108. Broeker, J., Mechelke, M., Baudrexl, M., Mennerich, D., Hornburg, D., Mann, M., Schwarz, W.H., Liebl, W., Zverlov, V.V. (2018) The hemicellulose-degrading enzyme system of the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium stercorarium: comparative characterisation and addition of new hemicellulolytic glycoside hydrolases. Biotechnology for Biofuels 11:229. doi.org/10.1186/s13068-018-1228-3 

107. Leis, B., Held, C., Andreeßen, B., Liebl, W., Graubner, S., Schulte, L.P.,  Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V.V. (2018) Optimizing the composition of a synthetic cellulosome complex for the hydrolysis of softwood pulp - identification of the enzymatic core functions and biochemical complex characterization. Biotechnology for Biofuel 11:220. doi.org/10.1186/s13068-018-1220-y 

106. Heinze, S., Kornberger, P., Graetz, C., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V.V., Liebl, W. (2018) Conjugative transfer of a new broad host range expression vector to various Bacillus species using a single protocol. BMC Microbiology 18:56. doi.org/10.1186/s12866-018-1198-4 

105. Schwarz, W.H., Brunecky, R., Broeker, J., Liebl, W., Zverlov, V.V. (2018) Handling gene and protein names in the age of bioinformatics - the special challenge of secreted multimodular bacterial enzymes such as the cbhA/cbh9A gene of Clostridium thermocellum. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 34:42. doi.org/10.1007/s11274-018-2424-9 

104. Pechtl, A., Rückert, C., Maus, I., Koeck, D.E., Trushina, N., Kornberger, P., Schwarz, W.H., Schlüter, A., Liebl, W., Zverlov, V. V. (2018) Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Cellulolytic, Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Herbivorax saccincola Type Strain GGR1, Isolated from a Lab Scale Biogas Reactor as Established by Illumina and Nanopore MinION Sequencing. Genome Announc. 6:e01493-17. doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01493-17 

103. Dvortsov, I.A., Lunina, N.A., Chekanovshaya, L.A., Gromov, A.V., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V. V., Velikodvorskaya, G. A., Demidyuk, I.V., Kostrov, S. V. (2018) Carbohydrate Binding Module CBM28 of Endoglucanase Cel5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii Recognizes Crystalline Cellulose. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 107:305-311. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.08.165 

102. Leis, B., Held, C., Bergkemper, F., Dennemarck, K., Steinbauer, R., Reiter, A., Mechelke, M., Moerch, M., Graubner, S., Liebl, W., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V.V. (2017) Comparative characterization of all cellulosomal cellulases from Clostridium thermocellum reveals high diversity in endoglucanase product formation essential for complex activity. Biotechnology for Biofuels 10:240.  doi.org/10.1186/s13068-017-0928-4 

101. Herlet, J., Kornberger, P., Roessler, B., Glanz, J., Schwarz, W.H., Liebl, W., Zverlov, V. V. (2017) A new method to evaluate temperature vs. pH activity profiles for biotechnological relevant enzymes. Biotechnology for Biofuels 10:234. doi.org/10.1186/s13068-017-0923-9 

100. Mechelke, M., Herlet, J., Benz, J.P., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W., Kornberger, P. (2017) HPAEC-PAD for oligosaccharide analysis – Novel insights into analyte sensitivity and response stability. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 409:7169-7181. doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0678-y

99.  Maus, I., Bremges, A., Stolze, Y., Hahnke, S., Cibis, K.G., Koeck, D.E., Kim, Y.S., Kreubel, J., Hassa, J., Wibberg, D., Weimann, A., Off, S., Robbin Stantscheff; Zverlov, V.V.,  Schwarz, W.H., König, H., Liebl, W., Scherer, P., McHardy, A.C., Sczyrba, A., Klocke, M., Pühler, A., Schlueter, A. (2017) Genomics and prevalence of bacterial and archaeal isolates from biogas-producing microbiomes. Biotechnology for Biofuels 10:264. doi.org/10.1186/s13068-017-0947-1 

98. Heinze, S.,Mechelke, M., Kornberger, P., Liebl, W., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V.V. (2017) Identification of endoxylanase XynE from Clostridium thermocellum as the first xylanase of glycoside hydrolase family GH141. Scientific Reports 7(1):11178. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11598-y 

97. Mechelke, M., Koeck, D.E., Broeker, J.K., Roessler, B., Krabichler, F., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V.V., Liebl, W. (2017) Characterization of the arabinoxylan-degrading machinery of the thermophilic bacterium Herbinix hemicellulosilytica - six new xylanases, three arabinofuranosidases and one xylosidase. J. Biotechnol. 257:122-130. doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2017.04.023 

96. Berezina, O.V., Herlet, J., Rykov, S.V., Kornberger, P., Zavyalov, A., Kozlov, D., Sakhibgaraeva, L.F., Krestyanova, I.N., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V.V., Liebl, W., Yarotsky, S.V. (2017) Thermostable multifunctional GH74 xyloglucanase from Myceliophthora thermophila: High-level expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization of the recombinant protein. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 101:5653–5666. doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8297-2 

95. Koeck, D.E., Mechelke, M., Zverlov, V.V., Liebl, W., Schwarz, W.H. (2016) Herbivorax saccincola gen. nov., sp. nov., a cellulolytic, anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium isolated via in sacco enrichments from a lab scale biogas reactor. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiolog. 66: 4458-4463. doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.001374 

94. Maus, I. , Koeck, D.E., Cibis, K.G., Hahnke, S., Kim, Y.S., Langer, T., Kreubel, J., Erhard, M., Bremges,  A., Off, S., Stolze, Y., Jaenicke, S., Goesmann, A., Sczyrba, A., Scherer, P., König, H., Schwarz, W.H., Zverlov, V.V., Liebl, W., Pühler, A., Schlüter, A., Klocke, M. (2016). Unraveling the microbiome of a thermophilic biogas plant by metagenome and metatranscriptome analysis complemented by characterization of bacterial and archaeal isolates. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 9: 171.  doi.org/10.1186/s13068-016-0581-3 

93. Koeck, D.E, Maus, I., Wibberg, D., Winkler, A., Zverlov, V.V.,  Liebl, W., Pühler, A., Schwarz, W.H., Schlüter A. (2016). Complete genome sequence of Herbinix luporum SD1D, a new cellulose degrading bacterium isolated from a thermophilic biogas reactor.  Genome Announc 4(4), e00687-16.  doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00687-16 

92. Koeck, D.E, Maus, I., Wibberg, D., Winkler, A., Zverlov, V.V.,  Liebl, W., Pühler, A., Schwarz, W.H., Schlüter A. (2016). Draft genome sequence of Propionispora sp. 2/2-37, a new xylan degrading bacterium isolated from a mesophilic biogas reactor. Genome Announc 4(3), e00609-16. doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00609-16 

91. Koeck, D.E., Wibberg, D., Winkler, A., Zverlov, V.V., Liebl, W., Pühler, A., Schwarz, W.H., Schlüter A. (2015). Draft genome sequence of Herbinix hemicellulosilytica T3/55T, a new thermophilic cellulose degrading bacterium isolated from a thermophilic biogas reactor. J. Biotechnol. 214: 59-60.  doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.07.022 

91. Koeck, D. E., Koellmeier, T., Schiffner, S., Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W., Schwarz, W. H. (2015). Differences in biomass degradation between newly isolated environmental strains of Clostridium thermocellum and heterogeneity in the size of the cellulosomal scaffoldin. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 38: 424-432. doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2015.06.005 

90. Koeck, D. E., Ludwig, W., Wanner, G., Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W., Schwarz, W.H. (2015). Herbinix hemicellulosilytica, gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic cellulose-degrading bacterium isolated from a thermophilic biogas reactor. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.000264

89. Zverlov, V. V., Koeck, D. E., Schwarz, W. H. (2015). The Role of Cellulose-Hydrolyzing Bacteria in the Production of Biogas from Plant Biomass. In B. Kamm (ed.), Microorganisms in Biorefineries, Microbiology Monographs 26: 335-361. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45209-7_12

88. Koeck, D. E., Pechtl, A., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2014). Genomics of cellulolytic bacteria. Current Opin. Biotechnol. 29:171-183.

87. Koeck, D. E., Wibberg, D., Maus, I., Winkler, A., Albersmeier, A., Zverlov, V. V., Pühler, A., Schwarz, W. H., Liebl, W., Schlüter, A. (2014). First draft genome sequence of the amylolytic Bacillus thermoamylovorans wild-type strain 1A1 isolated from a thermophilic biogas plant. J. Biotechnol. 192A, 154-155.

86. Koeck, D. E., Wibberg, D., Maus, I., Winkler, A., Albersmeier, A., Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W., Pühler, A., Schwarz, W. H., Schlüter, A. (2014). Complete genome sequence of the cellulolytic thermophile Ruminiclostridium cellulosi wild-type strain DG5 isolated from a thermophilic biogas plant. J. Biotechnol. 188C:136-137.

85. Koeck, D. E., Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W., Schwarz, W. H. (2014). Comparative genotyping of Clostridium thermocellum strains isolated from biogas plants: Genetic markers and characterization of cellulolytic potential. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 37:311-319.

84. Panitz, J. C., Zverlov, V. V., Pham, V. T. T., Stürzl, S., Schieder, D., Schwarz, W. H. (2014). Isolation of a solventogenic Clostridium sp. strain: production of n-butanol from glycerol, analysis of the bcs operon region and its potential regulatory elements. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 37:1-9.84

83. Poehlein, A., Zverlov, V., Daniel, R., Schwarz, W. H., Liebl, W. (2013). Complete genome sequence of Clostridium stercorarium subsp. stercorarium DSM 8532, a thermophilic degrader of plant cell wall fibres. Genome Announce e00073-13.

82. Koeck, D. E., Wibberg, D., Koellmeier, T., Blom, J., Jaenicke, S., Winkler, A., Albersmeier, A., Zverlov, V. V., Pühler, A., Schwarz, W. H., Schlüter, A. (2013). Draft genome sequence of the cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum wild-type strain BC1 playing a role in cellulosic biomass degradation. J Biotechnol 168:62-63.

81. Schwarz, W. H. (2013). Mikrobiologie bei der Hydrolyse in Biogasanlagen. KTBL-Schrift 501: Biogas in der Landwirtschaft – Stand und Perspektiven. S. 134-146. KTBL, Darmstadt.

80. Köck, D. E., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2013). Das bakterielle Konsortium in Biogasanlagen mit Fokus auf hydrolytische Isolate. KTBL-Schrift 501: Biogas in der Landwirtschaft – Stand und Perspektiven. S. 233. KTBL, Darmstadt.

79. Shedova, E. N., Berezina, O. V., Lunina, N. A., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H., Velikodvorskaya, G.A. (2012). Cloning and characterisation of a large metagenomic DNA fragment containing glycosyl-hydrolase genes. Mol. Gen. Microbiol. Virol. 24:12-16.

78. Krauss, J., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2012). In vitro reconstitution of the complete Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome and synergistic activity on crystalline cellulose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78:4301-4307.

77. Schwarz, W. H., Kostner, D., Meisinger, D., Panitz, J. (2011) EHEC – eine Bedrohung? Naturw. Rundschau 64(7):360-363.

76. Puri, M., Kaur, A., Schwarz, W. H., Singh, S., Kennedy, J. F. (2011). Molecular characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of naringin extracted from kinnow peel waste. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 48(1):58-62.

75. Schwarz, W. H., Gonzalez Bello, O. J., de Jong, W., Leahy, J. J., Oakey, J., Oyaas, K., Sorum, L., Steinmüller, H. (2011). Scientific Assessment in support of the Materials Roadmap enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies. Bioenergy. In: JRC Scientific and Technical Reports. Strategic Energy Technology Plan, European Commission.

74. Puri, M., Kaur, A., Singh, S., Schwarz, W. H. (2010). Hydrolysis of citrus peel naringin by recombinant ?-L-rhamnosidase from Clostridium stercorarium. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 85:1419-1422.

73. Puri, M. Kaur, A., Singh, R. S., Schwarz, W. H., Kaur, A. (2010). One step purification and immobilization of His-tagged rhamnosidase for naringin hydrolysis. Proc. Biochem. 45:451-456.

72. Berezina, O. V., Zakharova, N. V., Brandt, A., Yarotsky S. V., Schwarz W. H., Zverlov, V. V. (2010). Reconstructing the clostridial n-butanol metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus brevis. Appl. Molec. Biotechnol. 87:635-646.

71. Zverlov, V. V., Hiegl, W., Köck, D. E., Kellermann, J., Köllmeier, T., Schwarz, W. H. (2010). Hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic degradation of plant biomass. Eng. Life Sci. 10:528-536.

70. Kaur, A., Singh, S., Singh, R. S., Schwarz, W. H., Puri, M. (2010). Hydrolysis of citrus peel naringin by recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Clostridium stercorarium. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 85:1419-1422.

69. Schwarz, W. H. (2009). Biokraftstoffe und Genomik. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 728, 79-80.

68. Schwarz, W. H. (2009). Biosprit aus Bakterien. TUM Campus 2/2009: 23

67. Shedova, K., Albrecht, C., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2009). Stimulation of bacterial DNA transformation by cattle saliva - implications for using genetically modified plants in animal feed. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25:457-463.

66. Shedova, E. N., Lunina, N. A., Berezina, O.V., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H., Velikodvorskaya, G.A. (2009). Expression of the genes CelA and XylA isolated from a fragment of metagenomic DNA in Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Mikrobiol. Virusol. 2009;(2):28-32.

65. Zverlov, V. V., Hiegl, W., Köck, D. E., Kellermann, J., Schwarz, W. H. (2009). Prevalence and role of hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors. Schriftenreihe der Bayerischen Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft, „Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009“ Bd. 2, 16/2009, pp. 617-626.

64. Köllmeier, T., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2009). Selection and analysis of microbial cultures for efficient biomass conversion to methane. Schriftenreihe der Bayerischen Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft, „Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009“ Bd. 3, 17/2009, pp. 617-626.

63. Berezina, O. V., Brandt, A., Yarotsky, S., Schwarz, W. H., Zverlov, V. V. (2009). Isolation of a new butanol producing Clostridium strains: high level of hemicellulosic activity and structure of solventogenesis genes of a new Clostridium saccharobutylicum isolate. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 32(7):449-459.

62. Dvortsov, I. A., Lunina, N. A., Chekanovskaya, L. A., Schwarz, W. H., Zverlov, V. V. (2009). Carbohydrate-binding properties of a separately folding protein module from beta-1,3-glucanase Lic16A of Clostridium thermocellum. Microbiol. 155: 2442-2449.

61. Shedova, E. N., Berezina, O. V., Lunina, N. A., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H., Velikodvorskaya G. A. (2009). Cloning and Characterisation of a Large Metagenomic DNA Fragment Containing Glycosyl-Hydrolase Genes. Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology, 2009, 24: 76-81.

60. Shedova, K., Zverlov, V. V., W. H. Schwarz (2009). Stimulation of bacterial DNA transformation by cattle saliva - implications for using genetically modified plants in animal feed. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25:457-463.

59. Zverlov, V. V., Klupp, M., Krauss, J., Schwarz, W. H. (2008). Mutants in the scaffoldin gene cipA of Clostridium thermocellum with impaired cellulosome formation and cellulose hydrolysis: insertions of a new IS-element, IS1447, and implications for cellulase synergism on crystalline cellulose. J. Bacteriol. 190: 4321-4327.

58. Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2008). Bacterial hydrolysis in anaerobic environmental subsystems – Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium stercorarium, thermophilic plant-fibre degraders. In: Wiegel J. (ed.), Incredible Anaerobes. Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1125: 298-307.

57. Berezina, O. V., Sineoky, S. P., Velikodvorskaya, G. A., Schwarz, W. H., Zverlov V. V. (2008). Extracellular Glycosyl Hydrolase Activity of the Clostridium Strains Producing Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 44:42–47.

56. Schwarz, W. H., Slattery, M., Gapes, J. R. (2007). The ABC of ABE. BioWorld Europe 02-2007, 8-10.

55. Schwarz, W. H. (2007). Kurzmitteilung. Naturwiss. Rundschau 60: 379-380.

54. Antoni, D., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2007). Biofuels from microbes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 77:23-35.

53. Berger, E., Zhang, D., Zverlov, V. V. and Schwarz, W. H. (2007). Two noncellulosomal cellulases of Clostridium thermocellum, Cel9I and Cel48Y, hydrolyse crystalline cellulose synergistically. FEMS Microbiol. Let. 268: 194-201.

52. Schwarz, W. H. (2006). Nachwachsende Kraftstoffe. Naturwiss. Rundschau, 693: 151-154.

51. Schwarz, W. H. Gapes, J. R. (2006). Butanol - rediscovering a renewable fuel. BioWorld Europe 01-2006: 16-19.

50. Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2006). The C. thermocellum cellulosome: novel components and insights from the genomic sequence. In Cellulosome, chapt. VI, ed. Vladimir Uversky and Irina Kataeva. (In: Molecular Anatomy and Physiology of Proteins, edited by Vladimir Uversky). Nova Science Publishers Kataeva, I., and Ljungdahl, L. (eds.). pp. 119-151.

49. Zverlov, V. V., Berezina, O., Velikodvorskaya, G. A., Schwarz, W. H. (2006). Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 71: 587-597.

48. Schwarz, W. H., Zverlov, V. V. (2006). Protease inhibitors in bacteria: an emerging concept for the regulation of bacterial protein complexes? Molec. Microbiol. 60: 1323-1326.

47. Igelspacher, R., Antoni, D., Kroner, T., Schwarz, W. H., Prechtl, S, Schieder, D., Faulstich, M. (2006). Bioethanolproduktion aus Lignocellulose. Brennstoff Wärme Kraft BWK, VDI-Verlag, vol. 58 (3), p. 50-54.

46. Zverlov, V. V., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Schantz, N., Schwarz, W. H. (2005). Two new major subunits in the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum: xyloglucan hydrolase Xgh74A and endo-xylanase Xyn10D. Microbiol. 151: 3395-3401.

45. Zverlov, V. V., Schantz, N., Schwarz, W. H. (2005). A major new component in the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is a processive endo-ß-1,4-glucanase producing cellotetraose. FEMS Microbiol. Let. 249: 353-358.

44. Zverlov, V. V., Kellermann, J., Schwarz, W. H. (2005). Functional subgenomics of Clostridium thermocellum cellulosomal genes: Identification of the major catalytic components in the extracellular complex and detection of three new enzymes. Proteomics, 5: 3646-3653.

43. Schwarz, W. H. (2004). Cellulose - Struktur ohne Ende. Naturwiss. Rundschau, 8:443-445.

42. Schieder, D., Prechtl, S., Igelspacher, R., Antoni, D., Schwarz, W. H., Kroner, T., Faulstich, M., Wagner, U., Meyer-Pittroff, R., Bauer, W., Staudenbauer, W.L. (2004). Bioethanol aus lignocellulosehaltiger Biomasse – Potenziale und Technologien, Tagungsband Kraftstoffe der Zukunft 2004, Bundesverband Bioenergie e.V., Bonn 2004.

41. Schwarz, W. H., Zverlov, V. V., Bahl, H. (2004). Extracellular glycosyl hydrolases from clostridia. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 56, 215-261.

41. Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2004). The Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome – the paradigm of a multienzyme complex. In Ohmiya, K., K. Sakka, S. Karita, T. Kimura, M. Sakka, and Y. Onishi (eds.), Proceedings of the Mie Bioforum 2003: Biotechnology of Lignocellulose Degradation and Biomass Utilization. Uni Pub. Co. Ltd., Tokyo. pp. 137-147.

40. Adelsberger, H., Hertel, C., Glawischnig, E., Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (2004). Enzyme system of Clostridium stercorarium for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan: reconstitution of the in vivo system from recombinant enzymes. Microbiol. 150, 2257-2266.

39. Einspanier, R., Lutz, B., Rief, S., Berezina, O., Zverlov, V., Schwarz, W. H., Mayer, J. (2004). Tracing residual recombinant feed molecules during digestion and rumen bacterial diversity in cattle fed transgene maize. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 218: 269-273.

38. Schwarz, W. H. (2003). Das Cellulosom - Eine Nano-Maschine zum Abbau von Cellulose. Naturwiss. Rundschau 56: 121-128.

37. Schwarz, W. H. (2003). The cellulases and their application in degrading agro-industrial waste (Las cellulasa y su aplicación en la degradación de desechos agroindustriales). Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología 4:6-13.

36. Fuchs, K. P., Zverlov, V. V., Velikodvorskaya, G. A., Lottspeich, F., Schwarz, W. H. (2003). Lic16A of Clostridium thermocellum, a non-cellulosomal, highly complex endo-ß-1,3-glucanase bound to the outer cell surface. Microbiol. 149: 1021-1031.

35. Zverlov, V. V., Höll, W., Schwarz, W. H. (2003). Enzymes for digestion of cellulose and other polysaccharides in the gut of longhorn beetle larvae, Rhagium inquisitor L. (Col., Cerambycidae). Int. Biodet. Biodegr. 51: 175-179.

34. Zverlov, V. V., Velikodvorskaya, G. A., Schwarz, W. H. (2003). Two new cellulosome components encoded downstream of celI in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum: the non-processive endoglucanase CelN and the possibly structural protein CseP. Microbiol. 149: 515-524.

33. Zverlov, V. V., Fuchs, K.P., Schwarz, W. H. (2002). Chi18A, the endochitinase in the cellulosome of the thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68 (6): 3176-3179.

32. Zverlov, V. V., Velikodvorskaya, G.A., Schwarz, W. H. (2002). A newly described cellulosomal cellobiohydrolase, CelO, from Clostridium thermocellum: investigation of the exo-mode of hydrolysis, and binding capacity to crystalline cellulose. Microbiology 148:247-255.

31. Montoya, D., Arévalo, C, Gonzales, S., Aristizabal, F., Schwarz, W. H. (2001). New solvent-producing Clostridium sp. strains, hydrolyzing a wide range of polysaccharides, are closely related to Clostridium butyricum. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27: 329-335.

30. Schwarz, W. H. (2001). The cellulosome and cellulose degradation by anaerobic bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56:634-649.

29. Zverlov, V. V., Volkov, I. Y., Velikodvorskaya, G. A., Schwarz, W. H. (2001). The binding pattern of two carbohydrate-binding modules of laminarinase Lam16A from Thermotoga neapolitana: differences in ß-glucan binding within family CBM4. Microbiol. 147: 621-629.

28. Montoya, D., Aristizabal, F., Perdomo, L., Arévalo, C., Schwarz, W. H. (2000). Caracterizacion de cepas nativas de Clostridium ssp por secuencacion parcial del gen ribosomal 16S rARN. Revista Colombiana de Biotecnologia, Vol. II, p. 35-39.

27. Montoya, D., Spitia, S., Silva, E., Schwarz, W. H. (2000). Isolation of mesophilic solvent-producing clostridia from Colombian sources: physiological characterization, solvent production and polysaccharide hydrolysis. J. Biotechnol. 79: 117-126.

26. Zverlov, V. V., Hertel, C., Bronnenmeier, K., Hroch, A., Kellermann, J., Schwarz, W. H. (2000). The thermostable?-l-rhamnosidase RamA of Clostridium stercorarium: biochemical characterization and primary structure of a bacterial?-l-rhamnoside hydrolase, a new type of inverting glycosyl hydrolase. Molec. Microbiol. 35: 173-179.

25. Zverlov, V. V., Velikodvorskaya, G. A., Schwarz, W. H., Kellermann, J., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1999). Duplicated Clostridium thermocellum cellobiohydrolase gene encoding cellulosomal subunits S3 and S5. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 51: 852-859.

24. Zverlov, V. V., Schwarz, W. H. (1999). Organization of the chromosomal region containing the genes lexA and topA in Thermotoga neapolitana. Primary structure of LexA reveals phylogenetic relevance. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 22: 174-178.

23. Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W., Bachleitner, M., Schwarz, W. H. (1998). Nucleotide sequence of arfB of Clostridium stercorarium, and prediction of catalytic residues of ?-L-arabinofuranosidase based on local similarity with several families of glycosyl hydrolases. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 164: 337-343.

22. Zverlov, V. V., Velikodvorskaya, G.A., Schwarz, W. H., Bronnenmeier, K., Kellermann, J., Staudenbauer, W.L. (1998). Multidomain structure and cellulosomal localization of the Clostridium thermocellum cellobiohydrolase CbhA. J. Bacteriol. 180: 3091-3099.

21. Bronnenmeier, K., Kundt, K., Riedel, K., Schwarz, W. H., W. L. Staudenbauer (1997). Structure of the Clostridium stercorarium gene celY encoding the exo-1,4-ß-glucanase Avicelase II. Microbiology 143: 891-898.

20. Zverlov, V. V., Volkov, I. Y., Velikodvorskaya, T. V., Schwarz, W. H. (1997). Thermotoga neapolitana bglB gene, upstream of lamA, encodes a highly thermostable ß-glucosidase that is a laminaribiase. Microbiology 143: 3537-3542.

19. Zverlov, V. V., Volkov, I. Y., Velikodvorskaya, T.V., Schwarz, W. H. (1997). Highly thermostable endo-1,3-ß-glucanase (laminarinase) LamA from Thermotoga neapolitana: Nucleotide sequence of the gene and characterization of the recombinant gene product. Microbiology 143:1701-1708.

18. Schwarz, W. H., K. Bronnenmeier, B. Krause, F. Lottspeich, W. L. Staudenbauer (1995). Debranching of arabinoxylan: Properties of the thermoactive recombinant ?-L-arabinofuranosidase from Clostridium stercorarium (ArfB). Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 43: 856-860.

17. Mayer, M., Bronnenmeier, K., Schwarz, W. H., Schertler, C., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1995). Isolation and properties of acetate kinase- and phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus. Microbiol. 141: 2891-2896.

16. Schwarz, W. H., Bronnenmeier, K., Landmann, B., Wanner, G., Staudenbauer, W. L., Kurose, N., Takayama, T. (1995). Molecular characterization of four strains of the cellulolytic thermophile Clostridium stercorarium. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 9: 1661-1665.

15. Zverlov, V. V., Fuchs, K. P., Schwarz, W. H., Velikodvorskaya, G. A. (1994). Purification and cellulosomal localization of Clostridium thermocellum mixed linkage ß-glucanase LicB (1,3-1,4-ß-D-glucanase). Biotechnol. Let. 16: 29-34.

14. Schimming, S., Schwarz, W. H., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1992). Structure of the Clostridium thermocellum gene licB and the encoded ß-1,3-1,4-glucanase. A catalytic region homologous to Bacillus lichenases joined to the reiterated domain of clostridial cellulases. Eur. J. Biochem. 204: 13-19.

13. Schwarz, W. H., Landmann, B., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1991). Use of pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to compare genoms of thermophilic, cellulolytic clostridia. Electrophorese forum ´91, ed. B. J. Radola, München, Germany, p. 74-79.

12. Schimming, S., Schwarz, W. H., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1991). Properties of a thermoactive ß-1,3-1,4-glucanase (lichenase) from Clostridium thermocellum expressed in Escherichia coli. BBRC 177: 447-452.

11. Jauris, S., Rücknagel, K. P., Schwarz, W. H., Kratzsch, P., Bronnenmeier, K., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1990). Sequence analysis of the Clostridium stercorarium celZ gene encoding a thermoactive cellulase (Avicelase I): Identification of catalytic and cellulose-binding domains. MGG 223: 258-267.

10. Schwarz, W. H., Adelsberger, H., Jauris, S., Hertel, C., Funk, B., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1990). Xylan degradation by the thermophile Clostridium stercorarium: Cloning and expression of xylanase, ß-xylosidase and alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase genes in Escherichia coli. BBRC 170: 368-374.

9.Schwarz, W. H., Jauris, S., Kouba, M., Bronnenmeier, K., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1989). Cloning and expression of Clostridium stercorarium genes in Escherichia coli. Biotech. Let. 11: 461-466.

8. Schwarz, W. H., Schimming, S., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1988). Degradation of barley ß-glucan by endoglucanase C of Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 29: 25-31.

7. Schwarz, W. H., Schimming, S., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1988). Isolation of a Clostridium thermocellum gene encoding a thermostable ß-1,3-glucanase (laminarinase). Biotechnol. Let. 10: 225-230.

6. Schwarz, W. H., Schimming, S., Rücknagel, K. P., Burgschwaiger, S., Kreil, G., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1988). Nucleotide sequence of the celC gene encoding endoglucanase C of Clostridium thermocellum. Gene 63: 23-30.

5. Schwarz, W. H., Schimming, S., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1987). High-level expression of Clostridium thermocellum cellulase genes in Escherichia coli. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27: 50-56.

4. Schwarz, W. H., Bronnenmeier, K,. Gräbnitz, F., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1987). Activity staining of cellulases in polyacrylamide gels containing mixed linkage ß-glucans. Anal. Biochem. 164: 72-77.

3. Schwarz, W. H., Gräbnitz, F., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1986). Properties of a Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase produced Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 1293-1299.

2. Schwarz, W., Bronnenmeier, K., Staudenbauer, W. L. (1985). Molecular cloning of Clostridium thermocellum genes involved in ß-glucan degradation in bacteriophage lambda. Biotechnol. Lett. 7: 859-864.

1. Murakami, Y., Nagata, T., Schwarz, W., Wada, C., Yura, T. (1985). Novel dnaG mutation in a dnaP mutant of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 16: 830-832.